- Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X or dysmetabolic syndrome, refers to a cluster of metabolic conditions that can lead to heart disease. The main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), abnormal cholesterol, and an increased risk for clotting.
- The carbohydrates that had always been considered the causative agent had been officially rendered harmless. They had been removed from the equation of nutrition and chronic disease, despite the decades of research and observations suggesting the critical causal role they played.
- Medical investigators and public-health authorities, will accept the effects of insulin on chronic diseases as real and potentially of great significance, and yet inevitably interpret their evidence in ways that say nothing about the unique ability of refined and easily digestible carbohydrates to chronically elevate insulin levels. This is the dilemma that haunts the past fifty years of nutrition research, and it is critical to the evolution of the science of metabolic syndrome. As we will discuss, the observation of diseases of civilization was hardly the only evidence implicating sugar and refined carbohydrates in these diseases. The laboratory research inevitably did, too. Yet the straightforward interpretation of the evidence—from carbohydrates to the chronic elevation of insulin to disease—was consistently downplayed or ignored in light of the overwhelming belief that Keys’s dietary-fat hypothesis had been proved correct, which was not the case. In the last decade, Syndrome X has taken on a variety of names as authorities, institutions, and associations have slowly come to accept its validity. It is often referred to as insulin resistance syndrome. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute belatedly recognized the existence of Syndrome X in 2001, calling it metabolic syndrome. It has even been referred
- The same is true of the internal environment of the human body—Bernard’s milieu intérieur.
When Hans Krebs paraphrased this lesson a century later, he said that if we neglect “the wholeness of the organism—we may be led, even if we experimented skillfully, to very false ideas and very erroneous deductions.”